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This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ethnographic studies focus on large cultural groups of people who interact over time.
Ethnography is a set of qualitative methods that are used in social sciences that focus on the observation of social practices and interactions. It spread its roots to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the main contributors like E. Tylor — from Britain and Lewis H. Morgan —an American scientist were considered as founders of cultural and social dimensions.
Franz Boas —Bronislaw Malinowski —Ruth Benedict —and Margaret Mead —were a group of researchers from the United States who contributed the idea of cultural relativism to the literature. Boas's approach focused on the use of documents and informants, whereas Malinowski stated that a researcher should be engrossed with the work for long periods in the field and do a participant observation by living with the informant and experiencing their way of life.
He gives the viewpoint of the native and this became the origin of field work and field methods. Since Malinowski was very firm with his approach he applied it practically and traveled to Trobriand Islands which are located off the eastern coast of New Guinea.
He was interested in learning the language of the islanders and stayed there for a long time doing his field work. The field of ethnography became very popular in the late 19th century, as many social scientists gained an interest in studying modern society.
Again, in the latter part of the 19th century, the field of anthropology became a good support for scientific formation.
Though the field was flourishing, it had a lot of threats to encounter. Postcolonialism, the research climate shifted towards post-modernism and feminism. Therefore, the field of anthropology moved into a discipline of social science.
Forms of ethnography[ edit ] There are different forms of ethnography: Two popular forms of ethnography are realist ethnography and critical ethnography. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 93 Realist ethnography is a traditional approach used by cultural anthropologists.
Characterized by Van Maanenit reflects a particular instance taken by the researcher toward the individual being studied. It's an objective study of the situation. It's composed from a third person's perspective by getting the data from the members on the site. The ethnographer stays as omniscient correspondent of actualities out of sight.
The realist reports information in a measured style ostensibly uncontaminated by individual predisposition, political objectives, and judgment. The analyst will give a detailed report of the everyday life of the individuals under study.
The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description e. The ethnographer produces the participant's views through closely edited quotations and has the final work on how the culture is to be interpreted and presented.
Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 93 Critical ethnography is a kind of ethnographic research in which the creators advocate for the liberation of groups which are marginalized in society.Nov 21, · 16 reviews of William Douglas Property Management "While William Douglas Management could be better, it has improved over the past few years.
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The basic division in society is between those who suppose the function of language is to get things definitively right, and who strive to use this right language, codified and regulated, for the.