Egyptian medical papyri Ebers Papyrus treatment for cancer: The Greek historian Herodotus visited Egypt around BC and wrote extensively of his observations of their medicinal practice.
The triggering of the addicted behavior seen in these two diseases relies on the action of do- pamine. Moreover, both drug reinforcement and behavioral reward induce neurological changes in specific re- gions of the brain, including the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex.
However, drug addiction affects more indi- viduals and causes more devastating consequences than behavioral addiction, and will therefore be the focus of this review paper.
D rug addiction is a complex disease, and more work need to be done to help us better under- stand its neurobiological mechanisms. Animal models of addiction play a critical role in this area of research, and will be discussed in more details in the following paragraph.
Animal Models of Addiction Much of the recent progress in understanding the biology and pathophysiology of addiction has been derived from the study of animal models of addiction . Several models have been developed in order to mimic the different stages of human addiction, which are the following: An animal model of drug abuse is often used for the purpose of studying a specific biological phenomenon in humans, or to test the efficiency of potential pharmacological treatments for addiction.
The primary stage of addiction is characterized by a binge or intoxication due to the reinforcing effects of drugs, such as opiates, psychostimulants and alcohol. This change in reward can be measured by direct self-stimulation.
Sever al s tu d ies in rodents have used intravenous drug self-administration to understand how add ictive drugs could alter motiva- tional behavior . In these studies, the animal is implanted with intravenous catheters and is placed in a cage with a lever.
When the animal presses the lever, this automatically delivers an intravenous infusion of drugs, like cocaine and heroin. It wa s shown that self-administration of cocaine in rodents produces a characteristic pattern of addictive behavior: This animal model of intravenous drug self-administration will definitively help us predict the abuse po- tential of drugs, and their effects on motivation and behavioral actions.
When an individual stops taking a drug after continuous and excessive use, symptoms of withdrawal effects takes place, which often drives the individual to continue seeking the drug .
Symptoms of drug withdrawal typically include a general state of anxiety, and a feeling of emotional unhappiness. The first approach in study- ing the symptoms of withdrawal in an animal model is the drug discrimination methodology, which can be used to identify specific and nonspecific aspects of withdrawal  .
In this experiment, subjects are trained to distinguish administration of a particular drug from the vehicule, usually saline. Either vehicle or a dose of drug is injected prior to tr aining, and subjects are allowed to respond while the drug is producing its effect.
The an i- mal is put in a cage with two levers and can decide which one to selectively press and activate: When the dose of drug is administered, the animal presses on the drug-designated lever to produce reinforcement. In this way, the presence or absence of the drug differentially controls responding, and helps characterize the anxi- ogenic component of the withdrawal syndrome.
Another strategy lies in the studying of animal models of an- xiety to understand the effects of drug withdrawal.is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her.
Free surgical papers, essays, and research papers. Risks of Cardiac Surgical Procedures - Maintaining adequate levels of cerebral perfusion during cardiac surgical procedures is of utmost importance in achieving positive neurologic outcomes and minimizing length of hospital stay.
Injection of lignocaine into a dislocated shoulder joint versus injection of a pain‐relieving drug with or without injection of a sedative drug into a vein for the purpose of manual manipulation of acute (less than 48 hours old) anterior (towards the front) displacement of a shoulder joint from its normal position.
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society explores the social and policy sides of the pharmaceutical industry and its pervasive influence in society. While many technical STM works explore the chemistry and biology of pharmacology and an equally large number of clinically oriented works focus on use of illegal drugs, substance abuse, and treatment, there is virtually nothing on the.
Traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a range of medicine practices sharing common concepts which have been originated and developed in China, including various forms of acupuncture, dietary therapy, herbal medicine, moxibustion, and physical exercise, which collectively predate to the birth of Chinese civilization.
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