It is consumed in various forms and feeds over million Africans yearly. According to a research carried out by the IITA, over million tonnes of maize is produced yearly, with Africa only accounting for about 6. Of the percentage produced in Africa, Nigeria is the largest producer with about 8 million tonnes of maize produced yearly in the country, followed by South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda.
Agronomic data were supplemented by botanical traits for a robust initial classification, then genetic, cytologicalprotein and DNA evidence was added. Now, the categories are forms little usedraces, racial complexes, and recently branches.
The combined length of the chromosomes is cM. Some of the maize chromosomes have what are known as "chromosomal knobs": Individual knobs are polymorphic among strains of both maize and teosinte. Barbara McClintock used these knob markers to validate her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Maize is still an important model organism for genetics and developmental biology today.
The total collection has nearly 80, samples. The bulk of the collection consists of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene combinations and other heritable variants. There are about chromosomal aberrations e. Genetic data describing the maize mutant stocks as well as myriad other data about maize genetics can be accessed at MaizeGDBthe Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.
The resulting DNA sequence data was deposited immediately into GenBanka public repository for genome-sequence data. Sequences and genome annotations have also been made available throughout the project's lifetime at the project's official site.
Much of the maize genome has been duplicated and reshuffled by helitrons —group of rolling circle transposons. This randomly selects half the genes from a given plant to propagate to the next generation, meaning that desirable traits found in the crop like high yield or good nutrition can be lost in subsequent generations unless certain techniques are used.
Maize breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears. Modern breeding began with individuals who selected highly productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers.
Reid was one of the earliest and most successful developing Reid's Yellow Dent in the s. These early efforts were based on mass selection. Later breeding efforts included ear to row selection C.
Shull,and the highly successful double cross hybrids using four inbred lines D. University supported breeding programs were especially important in developing and introducing modern hybrids Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize Breeding and Seed Production pub. By the s, companies such as Pioneer devoted to production of hybrid maize had begun to influence long term development.
Since the s the best strains of maize have been first-generation hybrids made from inbred strains that have been optimized for specific traits, such as yield, nutrition, drought, pest and disease tolerance. Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in increasing output and reducing the need for cropland, pesticides, water and fertilizer.
The program began in the s. Transgenic maize Genetically modified GM maize was one of the 26 GM crops grown commercially in Origin of maize and interaction with teosintes Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte.
The difference between the two is largely controlled by differences in just two genes. This theory was further confirmed by the study of Matsuoka et al. It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte.
The term "teosinte" describes all species and subspecies in the genus Zea, excluding Zea mays ssp.Aug 01, · Golden Rice is genetically modified to provide beta-carotene in the rice grain and it could potentially address widespread Vitamin A deficiency in poor countries where rice is a staple.
Political opponents have viewed Golden Rice as representing the interests of multi-nationals and as inherently unsafe for consumption. buy maize and produce maize meal with bran as a by-product. Current maize available in this area can see as much as a 15% cost increase due to transportation surcharges if .
The MarkeT for Maize, rice, Soy, and WarehouSing in norThern ghana. The MarkeT for Maize, rice, Soy, and WarehouSing in norThern ghana The aSS e SSM en T Tea M and potential supply to meet this shifting market.
In addition, the study evaluated a number of proposed warehousing investments to determine which are likely to thrive.
A Country Case Study towards a Global Strategy for Cassava Development. Prepared by.
Department of Agriculture Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. and returns analysis indicated that maize production was profitable with an average net farm income of N48, maize and rice for family consumption, and markets. Sampling Technique: Profitability and Production Efficiency of Small-Scale Maize Production in Niger State, Nigeria.
Maize Value Chain Overview 2 Maize is the most important staple food in sub-Saharan Africa and is the main food crop in Kenya, representing 3 percent of Kenya’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 21 percent of the.