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Two of the courses, both of which were developed on the principles of CLIL yet with different orientations, were observed and analysed with respect to the words teachers were using during diverse forms of instruction. In-depth analyses of a total of three minute lessons indicate that the type and frequency of vocabulary items were different between courses, and that significant differences were also present across teaching styles, resulting in idiosyncrasy in the use of vocabulary items.
Based on these results, several suggestions are made on the creation of lexical sets serving as a common basic glossary for CLIL courses. Introduction In any form of programme developed and administered on the principles of CLIL, the combination of content and language undoubtedly comprises its core.
The importance of language has always been one of the focal points in CLIL programming Dale and Tanner, ; Harmer,but in emphasising the importance of integrating content and language, it seems to be common that content receives greater emphasis than language.
Thus, the importance of teaching language may be overshadowed by a greater focus on the teaching and learning of subject matter. Given that CLIL is ultimately intended to help students improve their knowledge and skills in the target language, due attention needs to be paid to language as well as content.
It is crucial to weigh the relative importance of content and language so they may be suitably aligned with the expected programme learning outcomes and strike a balance between these elements to meet the needs and the demands of various levels of the learners.
Amongst many linguistic features to be covered in CLIL courses, perhaps the most important is vocabulary Alba, The course is implemented for students who have not yet developed appropriate proficiency in English enabling them to undertake academic studies in specific academic fields.
Several evaluation and descriptive studies of CLIL programming in Japanese higher education have been reported elsewhere e. These studies were made on the basis of interviews, questionnaire responses, narrative descriptions of the teachers in charge and test scores.
To complement these it was apparent that deeper-level systematic observation studies should be conducted to reveal if and how a CLIL programme does lead to added value if compared to regular mainstream courses.
As one attempt to that end, this article reports on a study focusing on the lexical features of teacher discourse in two courses. Page 4 Page 5 The purpose of the present article is then two-fold. First, it is intended to compare and contrast two courses to examine whether the differences in purpose are reflected in actual teaching practices.
The second purpose is to identify and collect vocabulary used in the course, particularly that of academic discourse with a view to contributing to future course design. Another set of studies, which examined the linguistic aspects of CLIL courses, involves observational study exploring the language used by teachers and students in CILL classrooms.
However, other discourse patterns are reported which are particularly interesting with respect to greater understanding of the types of talk taking place in CLIL classrooms Lochtman, ; Nikula, There are also a number of research studies reporting on the learning and teaching of vocabulary.
There are also non-evaluative descriptive studies looking at lexical aspects of CLIL courses. For example, Espinosa produces a productive lexical profile by examining Spanish learners of English as a foreign language at the end of primary education in two different learning contexts, CLIL with the dual-focused aims of the learning of content and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language versus non-CLIL regular mainstream courses where students learn English as a subject in the Spanish primary curriculum Espinosa, A recent substantial contribution to understanding this field is by Llinares et al.
Tang analysed a total of six minute lessons of teacher talk of non-native speakers of English in China. The findings indicated that teacher talk did not provide students with a lexically rich environment, nor did the teachers use the basic words as frequently as had been expected.
Page 5 Page 6 Interestingly, although carried out in different contexts, these two studies concur that teacher talk may be inadequate as a source of input to the learners.
Indeed, the effectiveness of incidental acquisition of vocabulary just by listening to teacher talk is called into question based on the empirical research.
Thus, conscious attention needs to be paid to a specific word that the learner has to learn. It is also reported that the type of benefit that appears to be gained by CLIL courses may have actually been brought about by some other factors such as extracurricular reading Ackerl, Myer's-Briggs is not a personality test, it is a preference indicator.
It helps to explain behavior - why do people do the things they do or why do people make the choices/preferences they make.
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Join a game of kahoot here. Kahoot! is a free game-based learning platform that makes it fun to learn – any subject, in any language, on any device, for all ages! In Chapter 2 we explore the role that teachers of the content areas (including science, music, math, art, social studies, and physical education) play in adolescent literacy.
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