Evolution of programming languages

Early history[ edit ] During — Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Francis Maneclang about Charles Babbage 's newest proposed machine, the analytical engine ; she supplemented the memoir with notes that specified in detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the engine, recognized by some historians as the world's first computer program. To some people, some degree of expressive power and human-readability is required before the status of "programming language" is granted. Jacquard Looms and Charles Babbage's Difference Engine both had simple, extremely limited languages for describing the actions that these machines should perform. First programming languages[ edit ] In the s, the first recognizably modern electrically powered computers were created.

Evolution of programming languages

The Evolution Of Programming Languages Written by Mike James Wednesday, 22 July If you know a few computer languages and a little history you probably have some ideas about how they relate to one another.

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If informal ideas aren't quite what you want, how about a full taxonomy derived as if the languages were species? I need to say right at the start that most of the conclusions of this research fit in with your preconceptions of how languages fit together - or they should. Sergi Valverde and Ricard Sol working at the Santa Fe Institute have taken the methods of computational evolutionary theory and classified languages into clades to form a phylogenetic network or evolutionary tree.

The aim of the research is to clarify whether cultural evolution is like biological evolution, but the specific results about programming languages are still interesting to us programmers.

The data source was Wikipedia's extensive pages on computer languages, a total of different languages to be exact. Using a time ordering it is possible to say which language influenced which - later languages could not have influenced earlier languages. This produces a directed network but not a phylogenetic tree.

A measure of which languages influenced which was created based on the network topology and using it you can convert the network to a tree.

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The network of languages that was used to create a phylogenetic tree The tree that results does seem to be sensible in that the clades correspond with reasonable groupings of languages based on their characteristics - object oriented, functional and so on.

The Fortran clade It also reveals that the evolution is "bursty" and there is a big growth phase in the s corresponding to the introduction of the home microcomputer. Another interesting finding is: The influence graphs describe a very interesting situation: Relationships between languages from different eras Finally there seems to be evidence that programming languages develop much like natural languages and biological systems in that they exhibit punctuated equilibrium.

Essentially, things carry on unchanged for longish stretches of time and then suddenly there is a lot of activity with new entities being produced at a much faster rate: As it occurs with the tree of life, technological trees are highly imbalanced, largely a consequence of accelerated diversification events tied to innovations.

The asymmetries have been proposed to be evidence of punctuated equilibrium. In our system, we do identify these shifts as major innovations associated to novel forms of engineering programming languages. The tree imbalance, but also the bundles observed in the horizontal transfer interactions are consistent with such bursts of rapid modifications.

So really the way that we think of programming language informally seems to fit this pattern. Any programmer will tell you that things seem to go on for a long while with the same languages dominating, then all of a sudden something new appears and becomes so popular that it gives rise to closely related languages and technologies.Other diagrams: here is a nice one.; a derived one from O'Reilly; and for the early history, this one is light but well structured.; Mother Tongues of Computer Languages; a Lisp centered one..

But these are missing a hell lot of functional/logic languages. This specially prepared work compromises a living archive of important programming languages, described by the people most instrumental in their creation and development.

Programming languages, believe it or not, have existed for over years, since the invention of the punch-card-programmable Jacquard loom. It wasn’t a programming language in the modern sense.

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Evolution of programming languages

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For people who can't receive sound, here is a suggestion: Both of my names are pronounced with two syllables: Bjar-ne Strou-strup.

Other diagrams: here is a nice one.; a derived one from O'Reilly; and for the early history, this one is light but well structured.; Mother Tongues of Computer Languages; a Lisp centered one..

Evolution of programming languages

But these are missing a hell lot of functional/logic languages.

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