What were the effects of Islam on West Africa? How did Islam spread into Africa?
Culture of Africa and History of Africa Colonial boundaries are reflected in the modern boundaries between contemporary West African states, cutting across ethnic and cultural lines, often dividing single ethnic groups between two or more states.
The tribesmen of Guinea and the forested regions of the coast were without microliths for thousands of years, but prospered using bone tools and other means.
In West Africa, the wet phase ushered in expanding rainforest and wooded savannah from Senegal to Cameroon. Two seed plants, black-eyed peas and voandzeia African groundnuts were domesticated, followed by okra and kola nuts.
Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger—Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest. Later, gourdswatermelonscastor beansand cotton were also collected and domesticated. The people started capturing wild cattle and holding them in circular thorn hedges, resulting in domestication.
Fishing, using bone tipped harpoons, became a major activity in the numerous streams and lakes formed from the increased rains.
In the fifth millennium, as the ancestors of modern West Africans began entering the area, the development of sedentary farming began to take place in West Africa, with evidences of domesticated cattle having been found for this period, along with limited cereal crops.
Around BCEa major change began to take place in West, with the invention of harpoons and fish-hooks. The process used was not well developed, indicating that it was not brought from outside the region; it became more mature by about BC. Flint was considerably more available there and made the use of microliths in hunting far easier.
The migration of the Sahel farmers was probably caused by the final desiccation of the Sahara desert in this millennium, which contributed greatly to West Africa's isolation from cultural and technological phenomena in Europe and the Mediterranean Coast of Africa.
In the western Sahelthe rise of settled communities was largely the result of domestication of millet and sorghum. Symbiotic trade relations developed before the trans-Saharan tradein response to the opportunities afforded by north-south diversity in ecosystems across deserts, grasslands, and forests.
The agriculturists received salt from the desert nomads. The desert nomads acquired meat and other foods from pastoralists and farmers of the grasslands and from fishermen on the Niger River.
The forest dwellers provided furs and meat. About stone settlements littered the region in the former savannah of the Sahara. Its inhabitants fished and grew millet. Around BCE, the region became more desiccated and the settlements began to decline, most likely relocating to Koumbi Saleh.
From the type of architecture and pottery, it is believed that Tichit was related to the subsequent Ghana Empire. Old Jenne Djenne began to be settled around BCE, producing iron and with sizeable population, evidenced in crowded cemeteries. Living structures were made of sun-dried mud.
By BCE, Jenne was a large, thriving market town. By BCE, contact had been made with the Mediterranean civilisations, including that of Carthageand a regular trade in gold being conducted with the Sahara Berbersas noted by Herodotus. The trade was fairly small until the camel was introduced, with Mediterranean goods being found in pits as far south as Northern Nigeria.
A profitable trade had developed by which West Africans exported gold, cotton cloth, metal ornaments, and leather goods north across the trans-Saharan trade routes, in exchange for copper, horses, salt, textiles, and beads.
Later, ivory, slaves, and kola nuts were also traded. This archaeological site is located about 3 kilometres 1.PERIOD 3 REVIEW: Islam - began in the 7th century and spread rapidly throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, Europe, and Southeast Asia.
Between and CE, two major empires emerged in West Africa, just south of the Sahara Desert: Ghana - By the s, a farming people called the Soninke had formed an empire that . He also discusses the influence of Islam in Mali in the 13th century and describes the rule of Mansa Musa, whose fame spread to Sudan, North Africa and up to Europe.
Spread of Islam in West Africa (part 1 of 3): The Empire of Ghana; Spread of Islam in West Africa (part 2 of 3): The Empires of Mali and Songhay;.
Islam's spread from AD to AD impacted Africa socially, culturally, and politically by instituting the slave trade, creating a rise in education, and adding Muslim leaders to West Africa's history.
Islam had already spread into northern Africa by the mid-seventh century A.D., only a few decades after the prophet Muhammad moved with his followers from Mecca to Medina on the neighboring Arabian Peninsula ( A.D./1 A.H.).
The Arab conquest of Spain and the push of Arab armies as far as the. Islam & Europe C.E – C.E. Between C.E. and C.E., Islam impacted Europe in many ways, it brought (and took) political power to the Church and king through the Crusades, it affected society through the Renaissance, and finally it /5(9).
Start studying Fall WHAP Final Exam Review.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search.
|History of West Africa - Wikipedia||Published on Saturday, 29 December|
|Iron Working and the Iron Age in Africa - African Studies - Oxford Bibliographies||In the Muslim tradition, this event is known as the first hijrahor migration.|
How did Islam spread between ? How did merchants along the African trade routes influence West Africa? Brought Islam into the region.