Human nature and the state of men and women

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Human nature and the state of men and women

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Overview[ edit ] The concept of nature as a standard by which to make judgments is traditionally said to have begun in Greek philosophyat least as regards the Western and Middle Eastern languages and perspectives which are heavily influenced by it. By this account, human nature really causes humans to become what they become, and so it exists somehow independently of individual humans.

This in turn has been understood as also showing a special connection between human nature and divinity. This approach understands human nature in terms of final and formal causes. In other words, nature itself or a nature-creating divinity has intentions and goals, similar somehow to human intentions and goals, and one of those goals is humanity living naturally.

Such understandings of human nature see this nature as an "idea", or " form " of a human. Against this idea of a fixed human nature, the relative malleability of man has been argued especially strongly in recent centuries—firstly by early modernists such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution has changed the nature of the discussion, supporting the proposition that mankind's ancestors were not like mankind today.

Human nature and the state of men and women

Still more recent scientific perspectives—such as behaviorismdeterminismand the chemical model within modern psychiatry and psychology —claim to be neutral regarding human nature. As in much of modern science, such disciplines seek to explain with little or no recourse to metaphysical causation.

Classical Greek philosophy[ edit ] Main article: According to Aristotlethe philosophical study of human nature itself originated with Socrateswho turned philosophy from study of the heavens to study of the human things.

It is clear from the works of his students Plato and Xenophonand also by what was said about him by Aristotle Plato's studentthat Socrates was a rationalist and believed that the best life and the life most suited to human nature involved reasoning. The Socratic school was the dominant surviving influence in philosophical discussion in the Middle Agesamongst IslamicChristianand Jewish philosophers.

The human soul in the works of Plato and Aristotle has a divided nature, divided in a specifically human way. One part is specifically human and rational, and divided into a part which is rational on its own, and a spirited part which can understand reason.

Other parts of the soul are home to desires or passions similar to those found in animals. In both Aristotle and Plato, spiritedness thumos is distinguished from the other passions epithumiai.

By this account, using one's reason is the best way to live, and philosophers are the highest types of humans. Aristotle—Plato's most famous student—made some of the most famous and influential statements about human nature. In his works, apart from using a similar scheme of a divided human soul, some clear statements about human nature are made: Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household oikos and, in more successful cases, a clan or small village still run upon patriarchal lines.

This type of community is different in kind from a large family, and requires the special use of human reason. Man loves to use his imagination and not only to make laws and run town councils. He says "we enjoy looking at accurate likenesses of things which are themselves painful to see, obscene beasts, for instance, and corpses.

Much of Aristotle's description of human nature is still influential today. However, the particular teleological idea that humans are "meant" or intended to be something has become much less popular in modern times. Aristotle developed the standard presentation of this approach with his theory of four causes.

Every living thing exhibits four aspects or "causes": For example, an oak tree is made of plant cells mattergrew from an acorn effectexhibits the nature of oak trees formand grows into a fully mature oak tree end.Hobbes argues that the state of nature is a miserable state of war in which none of our important human ends are reliably realizable.

Happily, human nature also provides resources to .

Human nature and the state of men and women

Besides the obvious physiological differences, there are also differences in the way men and women think, speak, and behave. In order to understand the essential nature of man and woman, we must do away with human subjectivity and look through G-d’s eyes.

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. [1] [2] This involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors.

[3] [4] Because it is a broad term, which has varied over time, it lacks a precise definition. [4]. Human nature is a central question in Chinese philosophy. Human nature was considered by Confucius and Mencius to be essentially good. From the Song dynasty the theory of the original goodness of human beings dominated Confucian thought.

However, Hsun Tzu taught that human nature was essentially evil. State of Nature - The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a "war of all against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each .

Plato, Republic: "Women and men have the same nature in respect to the guardianship of the state, save insofar as the one is weaker and the other is stronger." Plato, Republic: "[T]he relation of male to female is by nature a relation of superior to inferior and ruler to ruled.".

Women & Men - Different but Equal? - The Meaningful Life Center