Introduction Native Americans long dominated the vastness of the American West. Linked culturally and geographically by trade, travel, and warfare, various indigenous groups controlled most of the continent west of the Mississippi River deep into the nineteenth century. Spanish, French, British, and later American traders had integrated themselves into many regional economies, and American emigrants pushed ever westward, but no imperial power had yet achieved anything approximating political or military control over the great bulk of the continent.
Are Russian Jews Descended from the Khazars? Unauthorized reproduction of this page is prohibited. This essay presents the pros and cons of the controversial "Khazar theory" of Eastern European Jewish origins and will attempt to provide a likely middle-ground solution to the question. Unlike other treatments of the question, this essay uses recent discoveries, is meant to be objective, and is fully sourced so that you can be guaranteed of the authenticity of the information.
Many of these writers made naive simplifications. It just happens that a Khazarian element is missing.
Evidence in favor of the Khazar theory According to most historical sources, Judaism was widespread among the Khazar inhabitants of the Khazar kingdom. Archaeological evidence, however, has not yet corroborated this. The findings described below, some of which are more conclusive than others, add strength to the argument that there were many Jews residing in eastern Europe prior to the immigration of German, Austrian, Bohemian, Spanish, and Portugese Jews into Poland and Hungary.
Judaism is almost always noted in our medieval documentary sources as having been the most important religion in the Khazar kingdom.
It is often the only religion cited when referring to the Khazars. And the Hebrew script is noted as being the script of 10th century Khazars. Here are some examples: The Richard white middle ground thesis, however, who are of the same seven tribes [as the Khazars], are now becoming baptized [into Christianity].
But they have been Judaized recently. This happened recently in the days of the Abbasids For this was a man who came single-handedly to a king of great rank and to a very spirited people, and they were converted by him without any recourse to violence and the sword.
And they took upon themselves the difficult obligations enjoined by the law of the Torah, such as circumcision, the ritual ablutions, washing after a discharge of the semen, the prohibition of work on the Sabbath and during the feasts, the prohibition of eating the flesh of forbidden animals according to this religion, and so on.
We, however, believe in the one God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. If God had loved you and your law, you would not be scattered throughout foreign lands.
They disclosed their identity to them, embraced their religion, were circumcized in the cave, and then returned to their country, eager to learn the Jewish law.
They kept their conversion secret, however, until they found an opportunity of disclosing the fact gradually to a few of their special friends.
When the number had increased, they made the affair public, and induced the rest of the Khazars to embrace the Jewish faith. They sent to various countries for scholars and books, and studied the Torah.
Their chronicles also tell of their prosperity, how they beat their foes, conquered their lands, secured great treasures, how their army swelled to hundreds of thousands, how they loved their faith, and fostered such love for the Holy House that they erected a tabernacle in the shape of that built by Moses.
They also honored and cherished the Israelites who lived among them. The greater part of these Khazars who use this script are Jews. Constantine Akropolites copied 11th-century stories about Saint Zotikos and the leprosarium that he founded in Pera, a suburb of Constantinople.
The stories reveal the settlement of Jewish Khazars in Pera, near the leprosarium, and how these Khazars had married with other Jews and become fully integrated into the Jewish district. Miller, Analecta Bollandiana In the early 10th century, the Jews of Kiev wrote a letter of recommendation on behalf of one of the members of their community, whose name was Yaakov bar Hanukkah.
There is an argument that these Jews were Israelites who adopted local names, but others argue that they were Jews of Khazar origin to whom Turkic names were native. The burial practices of the Khazars were transformed sometime in the 9th century.
Shamanistic sun-amulets disappeared from Khazar graves after the s, according to Bozena Werbart, and so did other sorts of items: Only quite recently have there been identified graves which can most probably be ascribed to the Khazars.
They are distinguished by a particular lay-out, being barrows raised over graves which are surrounded by square or on occasion circular trenches; these trenches are often filled with the remains of animal sacrifices.
There are analogies to this form of ritual in the homes for the dead in early Turk sites in the Altai region. The inventories have many features in common with those of other burials of the Saltovo-Mayatskii culture, such as the riding-gear and bow-and-arrows of the cavalrymen, together with the skull or skeleton of his horse, the skeleton being saddled and harnessed.
But the graves in question often, though not invariably, stand out from other Saltovo-Mayatskii burials by their wealth. One salient feature of these graves is their lack of inventories datable to the tenth century.
The Byzantine coins are of the late seventh and earlier eighth centuries, while the belt-mounts, weaponry, and stirrups are of types generally dated to the eighth and ninth centuries. Even allowing for the approximate nature of archaeological periodization, the absence of things clearly datable to the tenth century is noteworthy.
It seems reasonable to conclude that the Khazars as a collective changed to some other form of burial-ritual. Various explanations for a change might be offered, but one obvious cause would be the mass-adoption of a religion which disapproved of horse-sacrifices and burnt offerings.
Khazarian and Hebraic imagery can often be found on the same artifact:Christchurch September 4th a non-lethal, damaging magnitude earthquake hit Christchurch area via 'new' Darfield hinterland fault.
[Page under review edit. The relations between Native Americans and white settlers—the middle ground—served as a gigantic trade zone in which culture became the economic goods of demand.
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Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. The "traditional" view is that Eastern European Jews descend almost entirely from French and German Jews. This essay presents the pros and cons of the controversial "Khazar theory" of Eastern European Jewish origins and will attempt to provide a likely middle-ground solution to the question.
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