Full Year This module examines development processes and policies from a political economy perspective. It is designed to provide students with a core competancy in economic theory and policy relevant to the study of international development theory and practice.
It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly.
Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information.
Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. One may ask how does learning happen?
Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation.
Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced.
Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional.
Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom.
For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences.
There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral Theory The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual.
In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior.
They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning.
Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence.
Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus.
The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.
Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding.
He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment.
In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent stimulusthe behavior response and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues.
Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.
Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals.
Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies.
This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.theory remained dominant in practice, in the academic realm the pendu- lum began to swing back toward the left—though perhaps not as far as it went in the postwar period, and not even toward the same corner.
Rapley's study is determined to unravel the intricacies of development practice across the third world and map out its intellectual roots.
The project certainly succeeds in these goals."—Firooza Pavri, Progress in Development Studies. jean piaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a broad theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Although it is commonly known as a developmental stage theory, it also engages with the nature of knowledge itself and how individuals get to acquire, construct, and use the knowledge obtained. Theories of Political Development Government Professor Daniel Brumberg but even those with little introduction to the study of Third World politics will sense that the conclusions derived by the author are driven by a certain We shall see in Part Four that several leading proponents of dependency theory changed their theoretical and.
This free Education essay on Essay: Learning theories - behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive is perfect for Education students to use as an example. theory remained dominant in practice, in the academic realm the pendu- lum began to swing back toward the left—though perhaps not as far as it went in the postwar .
|SOAS University of London||Anyone interested in development economics Recommended to JP by:|
|August The concept of "development" cuts across many levels. It refers to macro issues such as patterns of a nation's growthas much as it refers to meso problems such as river-basin plansor to micro problems such as local community development.|