Flatten each one of these zones. But how does the Universal Transverse Mercator work? The Mercator uses an upright cylinder for its map projection.
The NOAA website states the system to have been developed by the United States Army Corps of Engineersstarting in the early s,  and published material[ specify ] that does state an origin apparently based on that account. From onward the US Army employed a very similar system, but with the now-standard Utm projection.
For the remaining areas of Earth, including Hawaiithe International Ellipsoid  was used. For different geographic regions, other datum systems e. ED50, NAD83 can be used.
Prior to the development of the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system, several European nations demonstrated the utility of grid-based conformal maps by mapping their territory during the interwar period.
Calculating the distance between two points on these maps could be performed more easily in the field using the Pythagorean theorem than was possible using the trigonometric formulas required under the graticule-based system of Utm projection and longitude.
The transverse Mercator projection is a variant of the Mercator projectionwhich was originally developed by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercatorin This projection is conformalwhich means it preserves angles and therefore shapes across small regions.
However, it distorts distance and area. Each of the 60 zones uses a transverse Mercator projection that can map a region of large north-south extent with low distortion. Distortion of scale increases to 1.
The scale is less than 1 inside the standard lines and greater than 1 outside them, but the overall distortion is minimized.
For more on its history, see Clifford J. However, it is often convenient or necessary to measure a series of locations on a single grid when some are located in two adjacent zones.
Around the boundaries of large scale maps 1: Ideally, the coordinates of each position should be measured on the grid for the zone in which they are located, but because the scale factor is still relatively small near zone boundaries, it is possible to overlap measurements into an adjoining zone for some distance when necessary.
Latitude bands[ edit ] Each zone is segmented into 20 latitude bands.
Latitude bands "A" and "B" do exist, as do bands "Y" and "Z". They cover the western and eastern sides of the Antarctic and Arctic regions respectively.
A convenient mnemonic to remember is that the letter "N" is the first letter in "northern hemisphere", so any letter coming before "N" in the alphabet is in the southern hemisphere, and any letter "N" or after is in the northern hemisphere. Notation[ edit ] The combination of a zone and a latitude band defines a grid zone.
The zone is always written first, followed by the latitude band. For example, see image, top righta position in Toronto, OntarioCanadawould find itself in zone 17 and latitude band "T", thus the full grid zone reference is "17T". The grid zones serve to delineate irregular UTM zone boundaries.
They also are an integral part of the military grid reference system. A note of caution: A method also is used that simply adds N or S following the zone number to indicate North or South hemisphere the easting and northing coordinates along with the zone number supplying everything necessary to geolocate a position except which hemisphere.
However, this method has caused some confusion since, for instance, "50S" can mean southern hemisphere but also grid zone "50S" in the northern hemisphere. Exceptions[ edit ] These grid zones are uniform over the globe, except in two areas.
The three grid zones 32X, 34X and 36X are not used.The Transverse Mercator projection illustrated above (Figure ) minimizes distortion within UTM zone Fifty-nine variations on this projection are used .
The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system is a specialized application of the transverse Mercator projection. The globe is divided into 60 north and south zones, each spanning 6° of longitude. Each zone has its own central meridian. UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Projection.
As the name suggests, the Universal Transverse Mercator projection is based on the cylindrical Transverse Mercator projection. The cylinder in the Transverse Mercator projection is tangent along a meridian (line of longitude) or it is secant, in which case it cuts through the earth at two standard meridians.
The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) conformal projection uses a 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system to give locations on the surface of the Earth. Like the traditional method of latitude and longitude, it is a horizontal position representation, i.e.
it is used to identify locations on the Earth independently of vertical position. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). The UTM coordinate system is commonly used in GIS for larger scale areas within a certain UTM zone. The UTM projection is formed by using a transverse cylindrical projection, i.e., the standard line runs along a meridian of longitude.
The transverse Mercator map projection is an adaptation of the standard Mercator torosgazete.com transverse version is widely used in national and international mapping systems around the world, including the torosgazete.com paired with a suitable geodetic datum, the transverse Mercator delivers high accuracy in zones less than a few degrees in east-west extent.