Gordon Brown History The Labour Party was born at the turn of the 20th century out of the frustration of working-class people at their inability to field parliamentary candidates through the Liberal Partywhich at that time was the dominant social-reform party in Britain. In the Trades Union Congress the national federation of British trade unions cooperated with the Independent Labour Party founded in to establish a Labour Representation Committee, which took the name Labour Party in
These are external links and will open in a new window Close share panel New Labour was the dominant political force in the UK for more than a decade, but even its biggest devotees proclaim it over. Justin Parkinson looks at its rise and fall. Under Michael Foot, it suffered a landslide defeat, taking just Memories of the last Labour government, which had ended in economic paralysis and the "winter of discontent", were strong.
The Social Democratic Party, founded by breakaway Labour moderates, was also draining support. The situation looked hopeless. Sharing a Commons office, they began discussing how Labour might, just might, become electable again. As Labour leader he fought hard to remove the left-wing Militant tendency from the party and attempted to modernise its image and policies.
Under his guidance the red rose symbol - rather than the red flag - was adopted. Mandelson also talent-spotted Blair and Brown, to whom he became a friend and mentor. But the election saw another big loss, with the Conservatives taking a seat majority. They both rose under Kinnock, with Brown becoming shadow trade and industry secretary and Blair shadow home secretary.
In and Labour had expected to lose to the Tories, but in came its biggest disappointment, with a third defeat in a row. After the election, Kinnock resigned and Smith took over the leadership, with Brown as shadow chancellor and Blair keeping the home affairs brief.
Blair and Brown now wanted to beat the Tories on their own ground, making Labour appear an obvious, safe, reliable party of government. The phrase "Tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime" was a key example of the strategy.
Blair, Brown and Mandelson, now an MP, were digesting the lessons of four election defeats. They became convinced that Labour must drop some of its old orthodoxies - such as being seen as a high-tax party - to convince the public it was ready for power.
When Smith died of a heart attack in Maythe modernisers knew their time had come. Mandelson, previously seen as closer to the early front-runner Brown, switched to back Blair.
This caused a huge rift in "The Project", as the modernising scheme became known, which would last more than a decade. Brown, though widely regarded as the senior figure in the partnership, stood aside for the more telegenic Blair after the two met to hammer out a deal at an Islington restaurant.
Thousands of articles - and even a TV film - have speculated about the terms of their agreement, especially an apparent promise from Blair to hand over power to Brown at some point in the future. The message was that Labour had changed.
Our mission - New Britain. New Labour - New Britain. The party won a seat majority - the biggest in its history on a manifesto which not only promised no income tax rises, but also a pledge to stick to Conservative spending plans.
Blair quickly became the global pin-up for centre-left politicians. The "Third Way", described as the ideological underpinning of the New Labour project and bringing market models to some government-run services, aroused interest across the western world.
For now, New Labour could do what it liked in the Commons. The huge majority meant backbench rebellions could be brushed off. There was one significant casualty for The Project during the first New Labour government. Mandelson, who had moved from the background to the frontline, was sacked - twice - from the cabinet.
He and Brown had long since stopped being close, but he continued to advise Blair. The Tories continued to struggle in the polls under William Hague, though, and Labour looked set for a continued spell in power.
And, with the first-term pledge to match the Conservatives on public finances gone, Brown could start spending. The NHS, schools and other public services saw large infusions of cash.
Stories about the "deal" between Blair and Brown became more widespread, with speculation about when the chancellor would become prime minister. Had the two decided that Blair would give way byafter 10 years as Labour leader?
Or any of dozens of other arrangements?
Some commentators regarded the pair as joint prime ministers anyway, with Brown having primacy over vast areas of domestic policy. Increased spending on hospitals and medical staff were popular among all sections of Labour. However, the leadership used up much of its goodwill within the party with the Iraq war - opposed by Labour MPs - and by introducing "top-up" university fees for higher education students in England - opposed by 71 of their MPs.New Labour had promised a "new dawn", and many feel betrayed.
I have some sympathy with these criticisms. Yet it is possible, nevertheless, to mount a robust defence of many of Labour's core policies. As the election draws near, there is a palpable sense of the current Labour government having fallen into decay.
Many of the brightest hopes reflected in that rosy dawn of Blair’s first day in Downing Street in – “an end to boom and bust”, the promise that followed of “a more equal society” – have dimmed or been dashed. The labour government was elected later in * , National Insurance Act and National Health Service Act.
* , National Assistance Act: abolition of the poor law. Bye Bye Labour Richard Seymour. In David Hare’s play The Absence of War, the Kinnock-like party leader, George Jones, is a tragic torosgazete.com wit, his passion and his ability to extemporise are gradually extinguished, with his connivance, by a party machine that spends its time trying to out-Tory the Tories.
How different is New Labour from Old Labour? The Labour Party was formed to represent the working class at a time when the franchise had not yet been extended to such groups.
The party’s origins in the unions and socialists societies that meant it originally pursued an agenda centered on socialism, being more left wing on the political spectrum.
To what extent and for what reasons did New Labour succeed in introducing a new and distinctive set of values to the conduct of Britain’s external relations between and ? Introduction As John Rentoul has observed in his biography of Tony Blair, “Prime Ministers always run their own foreign policy” (Rentoul, ).