A young researcher's guide to a systematic review Series: Part04 - Types of articles:
Results Conclusion The first step is to formulate a research question. This stage forms part of a larger stage of devising the research protocol. The question should be clearly focussed, neither too narrow nor too broad.
The acronym PICO has been devised to summarise the four parts a question should take into account the population or patient group studied, the intervention, treatment or test, a comparison or alternative intervention, and the outcome of the intervention see figure 1 for an example The research protocol covers the methods for searching the literature and extracting and analysing the data.
The methodology should be clearly defined before starting, in order to minimise bias. Inclusion and exclusion criteria should also be determined at this stage. The literature search is the next step. Bibliographic databases including Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and Embase for healthcare can be used.
It is wise to use more than one online database as each one includes a different range of journals. Reference lists of articles are useful for finding new areas to investigate, as can handsearching of journals.
The aim of searching the literature is to produce an inclusive list of relevant research studies from which to select the studies included in the review.
This stage also involves screening for and removing duplicates. This can be done through a computer based reference management system such as EndNote. Data extraction can be done using a standardised form. This links to an example of such a form: Such a form means data can also be entered into a database, making future use easier.
Different types of systematic review demand different forms, so ensure you use the most correct type. Quality appraisal is perhaps the most central step, and there are a number of checklists which have been developed to help with this process. This links to a simple and easy to understand example: It should be kept in mind, however, that different checklists can produce very different results.
On the basis of quality appraisal, studies are rejected and accepted. Data analysis is the next stage. A simple form of data analysis is to descriptively evaluate the studies, summarising these in table format.
Such tables typically include the population studied, interventions and outcomes.
Methodology and potential bias might also be listed. Metaanalysis might also be carried out.
The results are then interpreted. Strengths and weaknesses of the studies included in the review are considered. The findings of the studies are summarised, and conclusions indicated. Recommendations for future studies are often made.
Writing up a Systematic Review Systematic reviews follow a clear structure, generally of the format The title should be concise and accurate The abstract should be clearly structured The introduction should summarise the topic and explain why the review is necessary.Guide to conducting a systematic or evidence-based literature review.
Need some help to get started with your systematic or evidence-based literature review? T D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT Safety of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature Corey H Allen 1, BS, Benzi M Kluger 2, MD, MS, and Isabelle Buard 2*, PhD Affiliations: 1 Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University Atlanta, GA, USA; and 2 Department of Neurology, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora.
A systematic review answers a defined research question by collecting and summarising all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarise the results of these studies.
WritePass - Essay Writing - Dissertation Topics [TOC]Carrying out a Systematic ReviewWriting up a Systematic ReviewBibliographyRelated This guide deals with how to write a systematic review. Systematic reviews have become popular over the last 20 years or so, particularly in health and healthcare related areas.
JBI – Guidelines for Systematic Review Report Writing This document is intended to provide authors with a template with which to write a JBI systematic review report. Each section corresponds to headings in the JBI systematic review and includes a short and outcomes that are documented in the literature.
The background should be an. Writing a Systematic Review Outline. Like all other forms of writing, the process of writing a systematic review starts with creating an outline.
The writer will develop an outline of the literature review to determine areas of similarities and differences that emerge in the reading.5/5.